Taking Measure of Performance

March 4, 2019


Capitalizing on Insights from Data, ROI, and Other Performance Metrics

The digital revolution has transformed the accepted evidence of marketing success from anecdotes, hearsay, and hasty inferences to empirically quantified data. The paradigm shift has resulted from the sudden availability of vast and detailed information regarding consumers' behavior as well as technology that can automate, accelerate, and scale the analysis of the information. These new resources place new expectations on marketers, who must now verify their contribution to their organization's missions according to objective measures. This responsibility has required marketers to rethink the ways they achieve their goals; the specific metrics they use to evaluate the outcomes; and their approaches to staffing and structuring teams that are responsible not just for marketing, but for measuring and analyzing data as well.

The following selections from the ANA's Marketing Knowledge Center (MKC) offer some preliminary guidance for marketers trying to tackle these tasks — guidance that is available in vastly greater scope and detail from the Center's full library of content on the topic of data and measurement. As a concise primer, however, the selections below advise readers on how to:

  • Reach audiences across the media landscape and gather data on the various touchpoints. Empowered by recent technological advancements, marketers can target their audiences according to their locations, consumer profiles, and the types of platforms through which they consume media. At the same time, marketers can, with newfound precision, measure sales lift and assess cross-device attribution to evaluate and enhance the functioning of each touchpoint.
  • Appropriately understand ROI, as well as alternative performance metrics. In the view of some industry observers, ROI can distort the comparative value of different investments. By contrast, Return on Marginal Investment, or ROMI, can yield more revealing insights.
  • Reassess the methods and metrics used to evaluate the performance of sponsorships. Research by MASB and the ANA indicates that many marketers overrate social media metrics when evaluating sponsorships. The same research recommends that marketers should instead develop approaches that isolate the financial impact of individual sponsorship activations and prioritize metrics such as brand preference.
  • Wisely staff and organize efforts to analyze performance. The experience of Clorox's in-house analytics team suggests the value of embedding analysts in different lines of business throughout the company rather than organizing them as a more unitary and insular group.

Clorox isn't the only company to supply this Insight Brief with real-world examples of how data can be used to analyze and improve marketing. Other brands, such as Anheuser-Busch, have contributed case studies that illustrate how a rigorous approach to measurement can elevate the performance of:

  • Shopper-marketing initiatives
  • Sponsorships
  • Direct-to-consumer e-commerce websites

The above examples show the kind of business-driving insights that marketers can net from the digital world's oceans of data if they use the methods and tools prescribed by emergent analytic best practices. With such insights, marketers can take important steps toward surmounting the challenge that John Wannamaker is said to have evoked some hundred years ago when he observed: "Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted; the trouble is I don't know which half."

Today's data-based performance metrics can appraise the marketing investments that once perplexed Wanamaker to help brand managers distinguish waste from worth. With such knowledge, marketers can deploy their campaigns with more efficiency, effectiveness, and demonstrable value than ever before. Such knowledge illuminates issues of more consequence than just the ideal number of billboards to buy outside of Peoria; it can illuminate the smallest details of consumer behavior and how they changes in response to a brand's actions. With the benefit of such insight, marketers can, with more self-confidence than ever before, claim a seat at the table where companywide and strategic decisions are made.

Best Practices

Ad Targeting, Data Gathering, and Campaign Optimization

According to software company dataxu, more than 90 percent of the world's data has been created since 2015. As the stores of data continue to expand, marketers are facing different hurdles than in years past. Some of their biggest challenges include:

  • Accounting for regional nuances around the world
  • Adopting a data-driven strategy that includes traditional and digital channels
  • Connecting with consumers on the go and across devices
  • Closing the loop on attribution

Such challenges can complicate marketers' efforts to reach consumers across the media landscape and collect data for each touchpoint. To help them navigate these difficulties, dataxu shared several best practices and recommendations.

Reaching Consumers

New and Traditional TV Screens: Today's media landscape includes three types of TV audiences, each of which offers marketers valuable opportunities. dataxu identified these audiences as:

  • Cord-cutters who use connected TV devices like Roku or Apple TV. Marketing to this audience offers the chance for one-to-one targeting that can reach 13 million households.
  • Cable junkies who subscribe to cable providers such as Dish, DIRECTV, or Comcast. This addressable TV audience accounts for 45 million households.
  • Heavy TV watchers who tune in to local broadcast stations in addition to cable networks such as CNN and AMC. This audience represents about 118 million households.

Geofencing: dataxu urged marketers to maximize overall scale in key geographic locations by using multiple geofences to reach consumers in close proximity to specific locations (e.g., country, state, and direct marketing areas). Brands can choose to serve ads only to specific neighborhoods in and around locations that match their desired audience profile.

Lookalike Targeting: Using real-world lookalike targeting, brands can identify new consumers who resemble their existing customers. Doing so requires marketers to:

  1. Evaluate the consumer profiles available in their own data pools.
  2. Evaluate consumer profiles available in third-party data pools.
  3. Identify and rank the most important features that third-party profiles share with the first-party ones.
  4. Home in on opportunities identified in third-party data with their marketing efforts.

Gathering Data

Experimental Design for Maximizing ROI: Experimental design tests can measure the impact of multiple campaigns simultaneously. Specifically, these experiments can gauge:

  • Causality, as randomized controls reveal the causal impact of marketers' media spend
  • Efficiency, with multivariate tests delivering results faster and cheaper than A/B tests
  • Coverage, as they reduce the amount of data necessary to evaluate most media channels — many walled gardens included

Cultivating Cross-Device Insights: Marketers can uncover when consumers are most receptive to messaging by taking three steps. dataxu identified these as:

  • Spotting where consumers saw a message and when they engaged
  • Viewing engagements across all devices in a consolidated view
  • Using cross-device attribution to uncover the path to conversion across the customer journey

Sales-Lift Measurement: dataxu recommended a number of best practices to observe when measuring incremental sales:

  • Target consumers with relevant messaging.
  • Ensure that third-party data providers match audiences to existing data sets.
  • Compare the visit-rate achieved among those exposed to an ad and those who weren't (using lookalike demos).
  • Measure exposed and unexposed audience behavior.
  • Measure accurate lift by comparing lookalike groups that were and were not exposed to an ad.

Key Examples

dataxu shared two examples of how data can be used to increase sales and business performance. Both examples take a fairly granular approach toward reaching consumers and for leveraging proprietary data.

In one case, an agency needed to better understand how digital media investments affected specific refrigerated food sales and wanted to accurately forecast incremental revenue in its digital media mix. By designing and executing hundreds of simultaneous, randomized, and controlled media mix experiments across key regions and channels, dataxu determined the optimal spend levels, by channel, to drive the most efficient offline sales. dataxu was able to project that the agency could drive an incremental $630,000 in sales over one quarter for the promoted brand.

In another case, a QSR was looking for ways to increase awareness of its new online-ordering capability and ultimately to drive online sales. dataxu worked to educate consumers and increase online order sales via prospecting, retargeting, first- and third-party data targeting, and cross-device targeting with OneView. As a result of these efforts, online orders increased by 1,000 percent, cost per acquisition decreased by 95 percent, and conversion rates increased 1,800 percent.

General Best Practices

In sum, dataxu recommended that brands:

  • Utilize first-party data. Uncover attributes that make up the brand's ideal customer profile and take advantage of that data to identify similar audiences.
  • Adopt a location-based strategy. Use location data to reach the brand's target audience at the right place and time.
  • Apply data to traditional formats. Get a clear understanding of which media are working by applying data-driven analysis to traditional channels such as TV and radio.
  • Embrace multi-touch attribution. Apply data-driven journey analysis to maximize ROI and evaluate every touchpoint on the road to purchase.

ROI Reconsidered

As important as ROI has been as a lodestar in the work of dataxu, marketers sometimes overlook the fact that a reductive focus on ROI might not be the most effective way to measure the impact of their work. In fact, invoking an oversimplified understanding of ROI to gauge marketing impact can severely distort the true value that marketing is delivering for an organization.

The prioritization of ROI reflects good intentions. Marketing should, of course, show a return on the investments it makes like any other department. Linking marketing to financial performance and business results is absolutely critical.

However, many people who use ROI in a marketing context probably aren't using it correctly, says Dominique Hanssens, professor of marketing at UCLA Anderson School of Management and a globally renowned marketing scientist.

The Rub Over ROI

According to Hanssens, the use of ROI as a marketing metric can suffer from several shortcomings. It can be problematic, for instance, to compare ROI from different marketing investments such as a television ad campaign versus a paid search campaign. As it turns out, one can only make an accurate ROI comparison if the spending amounts are the same, since ROI changes at different spending levels. It is not only a function of the medium, but also of the size of the investment in that medium.

Marketers must also remain alert to the fact that maximum ROI does not necessarily correspond to the optimal spending level because it does not necessarily produce the maximum profit. Due to the diminishing returns effect (among other things), ROI can rise while the rate of sales growth drops. Thus, above a certain investment level, marketing effectiveness will decline, but that doesn't mean marketers should stop investing. Profits may still rise — just not as fast.

Should marketers stop spending when ROI drops, even if additional investment continues to produce larger profits? Most likely not. The point at which marketers should stop or make a change depends on the return of the last incremental amount spent, not on the overall ROI. The guidance to be gleaned from metrics related to "incrementality" is neglected by many marketers as they try to ascertain optimal investment levels.

More useful as a guiding metric to marketers than simple ROI is "Return on Marginal Investment," or ROMI. Examining "marginal" return, compared to an average return, can be critical to accurately interpreting results and making sound decisions about future spending.

So, if marketers must use a return measure to gauge marketing effectiveness, ROMI may be the better one. In the event that they do, the only thing marketers really need to know is whether ROMI is positive or negative.

Improving Sponsorship Accountability Metrics

ROI isn't the only metric that has required a careful reappraisal; so, too, have sponsorship accountability metrics. Sponsorship has become an increasingly important component of the marketing communications mix. However, measuring the business impact of sponsorships is a persistent challenge for marketers.

To understand this issue more deeply, MASB conducted a joint survey with the ANA in July 2018. In addition to conducting the survey, MASB performed qualitative research and interviews, which helped it to craft a roadmap to help brands develop consistent and effective methods for measuring sponsorship ROI.

According to ESP Properties (2017), $23 billion is spent on sponsorship annually in the U.S. and $62.7 billion is spent globally. In addition, cause-related sponsorships are growing at a higher rate than other sponsorship deals, such as sports or entertainment. But sponsorship commitments aren't just expensive; they can also be lengthy. Many extend three years or more, outlasting some CMO tenures.

One of MASB's most important findings was that about 60 percent of companies do not have a standardized process in place for measuring sponsorship ROI. Without a process in place, brands cannot attribute business results to the initiatives, nor can they optimize the programs to increase returns.

MASB suggested that ensuring sponsorship accountability requires three distinct phases of work that, if properly executed, should give brands a better understanding of sponsorship program results.

Phase One: Media Equivalency

Brands should first measure the quantity of impressions (not quality). Then they should consider how much similar levels of impressions would cost in other media. MASB recommended that brands have this reporting independently verified rather than allowing the sponsorship property to own the task of tracking impressions.

Phase Two: Measuring Quality

The next phase of ensuring sponsorship accountability is to consider how many quality impressions are generated and how they relate to lifts in middle-funnel marketing objectives. MASB suggested that brand preference should be a key metric for measuring sponsorships because it plays a pivotal role in the financial success of a brand. It is also a key factor in a consumer's decision to act and purchase. Many brands, however, look to social media metrics to understand a sponsorship's influence. While it is important to track social metrics, it is also important to understand their limitations. They can add useful context and qualitative information, but they should not be considered key sponsorship metrics.

Phase Three: Financial Attribution

The final phase for marketers is to understand what financial outcomes are generated from sponsorships and how they compare to other marketing investments. Doing so requires them to be able to isolate individual sponsorship activations, making improved financial models important. The need for such models assumes greater urgency because the results of major sponsorship investments are shared at the highest level of the brand or organization.

In addition to urging marketers to execute these three phases, MASB advised them to follow an additional best practice: require the sponsorship partner to commit to paying for the cost of measurement as part of the long-term sponsorship deal at the time that the deal is cut.

An added benefit of discussing measurement costs before the contract is signed is that the brand and sponsorship property will discuss what will be measured and what outcomes are important from the very beginning.

MASB also recommended that when it comes to contract renewals, organizations should initiate renegotiations roughly 18 months prior to the end of the contract. This timeline should align with the sponsorship sales team's objectives and allow for a conversation regarding what's working and what's not.

Building an In-House Analytics Team

As sophisticated as an organization's understanding of ROI, ROMI, and sponsorship accountability metrics may be, its ability to capitalize on that wisdom is only as effective as the staff of professionals to whom it entrusts its analytics capabilities.

The Clorox Co. provides an instructive example of how companies can organize and manage such a team in-house.

The company's 40-person analytics team includes analysts, advanced analytics specialists, and data scientists. In addition to shouldering the responsibilities for core analytic competencies, such as data, technology, models, and insights, the group is also accountable for interfacing with business teams, vendors, and IT.

The team determines its success by considering:

  • Its effect on the performance of business drivers
  • The reputation that the department holds within the company
  • External recognition, such as assessments from consultants

There were several years of testing and learning, development, and reorganization to help the department rate highly in these three areas — a process that Clorox, in turn, distilled into seven key elements.

How Clorox's In-House Analytics Team Evolved

Founding: The development of Clorox's in-house analytics team began by securing executive buy-in. Making a business case to senior leadership was crucial. So was articulating the department's plans to create consumption forecasts and to do marketing mix modeling more regularly across multiple lines of business. From a staffing perspective, the group needed specialists, not traditional market researchers. The proposal stated that these changes would be funded by work redesign rather than additional economic resources.

Mission Revision: Upon implementation, the brand realized it needed to pivot the focus of the department due to some limitations on its data and technology capabilities. The new mission focused on pricing analytics. There was a high demand at the company for this information, offering an opportunity to deliver significant value. Excellence in analytics was important, but so was the ability to tie the analytic output to business goals.

Structural Adjustments: Organizational changes were required to ensure the success of the in-house analytics team. Previously, analysts sat together as a group, but it became clear that to drive business actions, team members needed to be embedded within the company's other business lines. By sitting among internal clients, analysts came to be seen as part of those business teams with the ability to contribute to decision-making conversations. This arrangement also helped give analysts a deeper understanding of the organization's various business lines and a better appreciation of the business lines' challenges and points of view.

Alignment with Enterprise Goals: Integrating analytic output with existing business processes and companywide performance metrics was an important part of the analytic team's success. This alignment helped demonstrate the department's value to the marketing organization and to the company at large. Persistence in execution was essential, as it took years to develop, test, implement, and refine the department's analytic competencies.

Adoption of a Narrative Communication Strategy: Analysts tend to appreciate processing large volumes of information and wrestling with complexity, but Clorox discovered that when communicating with other departments, it is important to focus on the narrative. By providing a clear recommendation and helping the client to understand the organizational context of the data, the team's messages were more likely to be widely understood and accepted.

Maintenance of Team Cohesion: The team began to grow rapidly, and held regularly scheduled "community practice" meetings that helped preserve the department's identity. Later, functional Centers of Excellence formed around core areas of focus, such as pricing and data science, to encourage capability innovation.

Staff Development: The department developed a systematic approach to training by identifying the knowledge, skills, and conversance with organizational practices required to succeed in various roles. Cross-training helped to diminish turnover and increase employee engagement.

Based on this experience, Clorox identified seven key features for the successful development of an analytics team:

  1. Executive buy-in across the board, not just from a single supporter
  2. A clear mission that is adaptable and executed with persistence
  3. The implementation of the right organizational model
  4. Tight integration with existing processes
  5. Analytic outputs that relate to business performance metrics
  6. An approach to contextualizing and explaining data through narrative
  7. A focus on cross-training

Case Study

Continuous Improvement in Shopper Marketing

Even when staffed with the best talent — analytical, creative, and otherwise — a marketing effort requires constant reevaluation and reoptimization.

Drawing on its work with clients Foresight ROI urged shopper marketers to adopt a six-pronged approach to continuous improvement. Three of these practices support the sciences of measurement and analysis that should guide shopper marketers' work. According to Foresight ROI, marketers should:

  • Measure returns to assess their tactics' effectiveness.
  • Gain insights from past performance in order to improve those tactics.
  • Use predictive modeling to inform and enhance future performance.

For these practices to yield optimal results, they must be accompanied by model governance, which Foresight ROI divided into three component practices for shopper marketers:

  • Set common goals and clearly assign accountabilities.
  • Establish common rewards to promote collaboration and compliance with best practices.
  • Adhere to a continuous-improvement process of measuring, learning, and changing responsively.

To illustrate these practices in action, Foresight ROI described its work with a CPG brand. Its client's shopper marketers were saddled with time-consuming responsibilities for tracking budgets and data. Consequently, administrative tasks were disrupting the work of actual marketing. In addition, the organization was applying inapt marketing mix models to its shopper marketing, resulting in inaccurate measurement, plunging confidence in the models, and, by extension, an overreliance on personal judgment to plan campaigns.

To help extricate the brand from this unfortunate situation, Foresight ROI helped it to take six practical steps in accordance with its model for continuous improvement.


  • The brand adopted a method for accurately measuring shopper marketing ROI that allowed it to distinguish those sales attributable to shopper marketing from those attributable to trade promotions. This approach to measurement had to be granular and multidimensional, given the wide variety of shopper marketing tactics and the modest expense that many entail.
  • The brand pursued and attained insights that could guide practical adjustments to its shopper marketing tactics. Specifically, it evaluated the ROI that each of its shopper marketing tactics delivered at each of the retailers that it worked with. A checkout coupon that performed well in Target locations might flop in Kroger's.

    The brand's new approach to measurement allowed it to capitalize on the specific advantages of each tactic and avoid using it in inopportune contexts.
  • With the help of Foresight ROI, the brand simulated the results of future shopper marketing programming to optimize it going forward. By modeling out how adjustments to spending on specific tactics would affect ROI, the brand could significantly improve performance.


  • The brand justified its budgets with specific goals and assigned specific accountabilities for those goals.
  • The brand's shopper marketers undertook fruitful collaboration with a variety of stakeholders. They worked with fellow marketers in the organization to integrate their work with trade promotions. This collaboration was advantageous not only for shopper marketing; it also helped trade promotions to improve their own performance. In addition, shopper marketers worked with retailers to seize on win-win opportunities, helping the stores to demonstrate category growth while the brand increased sales.
  • The brand committed itself to an ongoing process in which it used its measurements and learnings to inform its future plans. These insights guided its executions, which the brand tracked and measured to perpetuate the cycle of continuous improvement.


These actions dramatically improved brand performance. The new approach to measurement and tracking streamlined administrative functions, freeing up valuable time for the work of actual marketing. In addition, the heightened clarity of the resultant data provided a more accurate picture of shopper marketing's performance, enabling more deliberate and effective planning. What's more, the new approach coincided with a dramatic improvement in ROI — specifically, a 174 percent bump between 2014 and 2018.

Reassessing Sponsorship ROI with Anheuser-Busch InBev

The ways that marketers measure the performance of sponsorships are no less in need of thoughtful consideration than the ways that they assess the performance of their work in retail contexts.

Consumers are passionate about their favorite sports teams, which is why sports sponsorships have historically been a crucial part of Anheuser-Busch's marketing mix. But with growth having plateaued, costs rising, and fierce competition surging among beer manufacturers, the brand needed to take a hard look at how it invested in and measured its partnerships with sports leagues and teams. The goal? Manage its spending more effectively and scale its sponsorship program appropriately.

Looking toward the future, Anheuser-Busch diminished its once ubiquitous presence across the sports landscape in favor of more strategic partnerships that drove ROI. Under this "fewer, bigger, bolder" strategy, the brand's three main objectives were to:

  • Cut or restructure deals that did not align with corporate programs or regional priorities.
  • Focus more on curating interactive experiences and obtaining expanded rights instead of expanded size or spending.
  • Place more focus on how sponsorships were repackaged, activated, and measured.

Calculating the ROI of Sponsorships

To calculate the ROI of its sports teams and league sponsorship, Anheuser-Busch used Nielsen's model to add up the value of the different assets of a sponsorship deal (e.g., packaging, trade, paid media, and in-stadium) and then divided that number by the total cost. After conducting a thorough analysis of its sponsorships using this formula, the brand discovered:

  • ROI was the highest for lower-cost deals across both the MLB and NFL.
  • Team popularity did not always translate into higher ROI, suggesting that some team sponsorships were overvalued based on their popularity.

Anheuser-Busch used the results of its analysis to develop KPIs that it could track to improve the ROI of its existing deals and to determine which metrics were most important to analyze when renewing contracts with sports teams and leagues. When analyzing and negotiating deals, it found that there were three things to consider:

  1. The assets (intellectual property being of greater value than signage)
  2. The percentage of people in a particular market who are fans of the team
  3. Whether exclusivity is worth its relatively higher cost

Sponsorship ROI is not the only data point that Anheuser-Busch analyzes when renewing deals, but it has become an input the brand considers along with business realities and its regional priorities.

"Rightsizing" the Sponsorship Program

Full company alignment on the local sports sponsorship strategy and the brand's willingness to walk away from existing partnerships contributed to the brand's first decrease to its sports sponsorship budget in more than a decade. In less than 18 months, Anheuser-Busch renewed sponsorship rights with 51 teams and eliminated 12 teams from its books. Due to its aggressive negotiation tactics, 74 percent of its sponsorship renewal fees were down or flat, with only 13 increases, most of which were driven by exclusivity or new stadiums. It also completely restructured the elements that were included in most of its contracts moving forward.

Kopari Beauty Boosts E-Commerce with Split Testing

If improved metrics have enabled marketers to assess the performance of sponsorships through a new and powerful magnifying glass, split testing has enabled them to assess the performance of their websites through an electron microscope.

Take Kopari Beauty. The company sells a slate of products based on coconut oil, a portfolio that has lately expanded to include a deodorant that substitutes that ingredient for the product's traditional aluminum, which some associate with negative health effects.

To illuminate the ways in which small changes to a website can have a dramatic impact on customers' behavior — and the ways in which such efforts can be precisely measured — Kopari shared the results of an array of test-and-optimize experiments the company conducted on its own direct-to-consumer site. The aspects of the website that Kopari tested fell into four groups: messaging, shopper experience, personalization, and iterative design.

Persuasive Messaging

Offer Testing: Kopari pitched shoppers a bimonthly subscription for its coconut deodorant in three ways, inviting them to:

  • Subscribe and save 15 percent
  • Subscribe for 15 percent off and a free stick of lip gloss
  • Subscribe for $5 off the first order

Surprisingly, the first offer of a simple 15 percent off outperformed the other versions, prompting Kopari to hypothesize that shoppers responded to its simplicity even more than they did to an objectively richer offer such as the second one.

Value Proposition: Kopari drew insights about what grips shoppers' attention when it tested two pieces of copy that each presented shoppers with a distinct value proposition:

  • "More than 100,000 people have made the switch to our coconut deodorant."
  • "The product that had a 5,000-person waitlist."

Kopari found that the first message generated 4 percent more revenue, leading the company to surmise that shoppers found the larger number more compelling.

Customer Reviews: Kopari learned that the inclusion of customer reviews on the coconut deodorant product-detail page increased revenue by an average of 5.3 percent per user compared to a product-detail page that omitted the reviews.

Product Photography versus Lifestyle Photography: Kopari's testing showed that images of models on its home page generated 8.9 percent more revenue per user compared with images of products.

A Sleeker Shopping Experience with the Right Pricing and Offers

Free Shipping Threshold: Kopari found that increasing the order total required for free shipping from $50 to $60 increased the average order value by 5.5 percent, with no drop in conversions.

Add-Ons: Kopari's testing showed that offering a $12 stick of lip gloss as an add-on to orders increased the average revenue per visit by 3 percent without affecting the conversion rate.

The Right Times and Places for Personalization

Subscription Upsell: Testing taught Kopari to get out of the way once shoppers take out their wallets. A customized, discounted offer to subscribe to an additional item, which Kopari presented to shoppers at checkout, decreased the revenue per user by 4.8 percent.

Podcast Discounts: Kopari observed that conversions increased 8 percent among shoppers who were directed by an ad on the Ellen podcast to use a special URL that offered a $5 discount.

Cart Reminders: Kopari found that reminding return users of an item they left behind in their shopping carts was a valuable tactic, as it increased desktop revenue 16.88 percent (though it decreased mobile revenue by 1.3 percent).

Browsing Reminders: Offering shoppers a reminder of an item that they had previously viewed boosted the revenue per returning visitor by 6 percent.

Iterative Design

Personalized Callouts: Kopari's testing revealed that presenting users with a personalized callout at the top of the home page increased the revenue generated per visitor by 4.2 percent, prompting the company to adopt the feature on the non-experimental versions of its website.

Offer Placement: Experimentation demonstrated that placing a subscription offer above a call to action, as opposed to below it, led to a 6.11 percent increase in the average revenue per visitor generated from subscriptions and one-time purchases (considered aggregately).

Sortable Reviews: Testing showed that revenue per user increased 4.7 percent when the website offered customer reviews on a product page that were sortable by the number of stars awarded.

Source Information

"Solving the Data Activation Problem in 2017 and Beyond." Ed Montes, Chief Research Officer at dataxu. ANA Promotion Marketing Committee Meeting, 5/9/17.

"ROI: Today's Most Misunderstood Marketing Metric." ANA Data Analytics Center, 9/27/17.

"Improving Sponsorship Accountability Metrics." Tony Pace, President of and CEO at MASB. 2018 ANA Data and Measurement Conference, 9/13/18.

"Building an In-House Analytics Team." Ashish Joshi, Senior Director of Global Data, Analytics, and Data Science at The Clorox Co. 2018 ANA Data and Measurement Conference, 9/13/18; ANA Data & Analytics Members-Only Conference 12/5/18.

"Six Capabilities for Continuous Improvement in Shopper Marketing." Rick Abens, founder-CEO of Foresight ROI. ANA Shopper Marketing Committee Meeting, 9/6/18.

"Anheuser-Busch InBev: Drafting Sponsorship ROI." Nick Kelly, Director of Experiential Marketing at Anheuser-Busch InBev. ANA Sponsorship and Event Marketing Committee Meeting, 5/16/17.

"Optimizing E-Commerce Websites with Split Testing." Lanie De Pasquale, E-Commerce Manager at Kopari Beauty. ANA Digital and Social Committee Meeting, West Coast Chapter, 1/17/18.


"Taking Measure of Performance." Insight brief compiled by Morgan Strawn, Manager, Marketing Knowledge Center. Designer: Erin Becker, Marketing and Communications, ANA. Editor: Matthew Schwartz, Senior Manager, Marketing & Communications, ANA. © Copyright 2019 by the Association of National Advertisers, Inc. All rights reserved.